Cultivars for Ontario Growers

 

'Yamhill' is a main production cultivar. It is an Oregon State University introduction accepted by Ferrero. The tree is relatively hardy and a strong grower. The tree is blight and bud mite resistant. The nut is medium size, round and well filled.

  • Alleles are 8 and 26. Cross pollinates with Jefferson, Santiam, Gamma, Gene, Slate, Carmela, Andrew and Aldara.
  • Female bloom is hardy for zone 6b-8
  • Male catkin is hardy for zone 7a-8

'Jefferson' is a main production cultivar. It is an Oregon State University introduction accepted by Ferrero. The tree is relatively hardy and a strong grower. The tree has moderate blight resistance and good bud mite resistance. The nut is large size, round and well filled.

  • Alleles are 1 and 3. Cross pollinates with Yamhill, Gamma, Gene, Alex, Carmela Andrew, and Aldara
  • Female bloom is hardy for climate zones 6b-8.
  • Male catkin is hardy for zone 7a-8

'Gamma' was selected in Oregon as a pollinizer accepted by Ferrero. It is moderately blight resistant with good bud mite resistance. It is a good producer of medium size, round, well filled nuts.

  • Alleles are 2 and 10. Cross pollinates with Yamhill, Jefferson, Santiam, Gene and Slate.
  • Female bloom is hardy for climate zones 6b-8
  • Male catkin is hardy for zones 6b-8

‘Santiam’ is a main production cultivar released from OSU in 2005. Proving it is winter hardy and EFB resistant Simcoe has us considering this to be a good selection for Ontario growers. The nut is medium sized, round, and fills well.

  • Alleles are 3 and 15. Cross pollinates with Yamhill, Gamma, Gene and Slate.
  • Female bloom is hardy for climate zones 6a-8.
  • Male catkin is hardy for climate zones 6a-8.

'GeneTM' formerly called 'Geneva', is our main pollinator and is also a prolific nut producer. It is vigorous, higly blight resistant hybrid tree from a large breeding program in zone 5b. The nut is large, slightly oval in shape and most drop out of the husk when ripe. The nuts start dropping mid-September.

  • Alleles are 15 and 23. Cross pollinates with Yamhill, Jefferson, Gamma, Carmela, Slate and more.
  • We recommend it both as a pollinizer and as a main crop tree for zones 5b-8. 

'SlateTM' is a very productive compact tree and some years a good pollinator. It is the product of a major breeding program in zone 5b and has proven to be highly blight resistant. The nut is large, slightly oval in shape and most drop out of the husk when ripe. The nuts start dropping mid-September.

  • Alleles are 1 and 23. Cross pollinates with Yamhill, Santiam Gene, Alex, Carmela, Aldara and more
  • We recommend it as a main producing cultivar in climate zones 5b-8.

'Chelsea' is selected by Martin Hodgeson. It is a large oval nut and hardy in the Simcoe planting. It is recommended as a pollinizer.

  • Alleles are 1 and 20.
  • Female bloom is hardy for climate zones 6a-8.

'Norfolk' is selected by Martin Hodgeson. It is a large oval nut and hardy in the Simcoe planting. It is recommended as a pollinizer.

  • Alleles are 12 and 25.
  • Female bloom is hardy for climate zones 6a-8.

'Carmela' is a selection by Ernie Grimo. It is an extra large, oval shaped, well filled nut. It is a biennial bearing tree with heavy and lighter crops on a 2-3 year cycle. It is a good pollinizer for zone 6b-8 and because of the large size, it can be screened out to keep varieties separate in the harvest. In 40 or more year it has never had blight. Shows NO blight in Rutgers orchards.

  • Alleles to be completed spring 2017.
  • Female bloom is hardy for climate zones 6a-8.

'Alex' is a selection by Ernie Grimo. It is a large size oval well filled nut. 'Alex' is a moderate annual bearing, strong upright tree. It has potential as a pollinizer. It is bud mite and highly blight resistant. Shows NO blight in Rutgers orchards.

  • Alleles to be completed by spring 2018, but PEI handcrosses show it will pollinate Jefferson, Gene and Slate.
  • The female bloom is hardy for climate zones 6a-8.

'Andrew' is a selection by Ernie Grimo. It is an "Asian source" tree growing to about 3-4 m tall and spreading about 3 m. It is productive and highly blight resistant. The nuts are medium size round and ripen mid to late August.

  • Alleles to be completed by spring 2018, but PEI  handcrosses show it will pollinate Yamhill, Gene, Slate, Carmela and Matt.
  • Suited for climate zones 3b-8.

'Aldara' is a selection by Ernie Grimo. It is an "Asian source" tree growing to about 3-4 m tall and spreading about 3 m wide.  It is very productive and highly blight resistant. The nuts are medium size round and ripen mid-late August.

  • Alleles are 25 and 27.
  • Suited for climate zones 3b-8.

 

Alleles Explained– An allele is one of a pair of genes that appear at a particular location on the chromosome that controls breeding compatibility. Hazelnut alleles are numbered to identify them. All hazelnuts carry two alleles but they are blocked from pollinizing themselves. For hazelnuts to cross pollinize, the numbers from one parent must be different from the alleles in the other parent.  For example, Gamma has alleles 2 & 10, Yamhill has alleles 8 & 26, and therefore they are compatible both ways. This means that Gamma can pollinize Yamhill and Yamhill can pollinize Gamma.

 - Underlined allele numbers indicate that male pollen is not expressed by that number. Nuts will not be set when either of the alleles in the female flower matches either of the alleles in the pollen. For example, Jefferson has female alleles 1 & 3. Slate has female alleles 1 & 23. Slate pollen is expressed in allele 23 and not in allele 1, but since there is a 1 in the female flower of Jefferson, they are incompatible. Vice versa, Jefferson pollen is expressed in allele 3 but it can’t pollinize Slate because of the female allele 1.

- Pollinizer studies by the PEI Soil and Crop Association have identified some of the cultivars that will cross with each other even though the alleles have not been identified yet. This study is available on request.

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